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Iran is known to the world as Persia, also to an extent known as Greater Iran.
Iran is the habitat one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 7000 BC. The southwestern and western part of the Iranian Plateau participated in the traditional Ancient Near East with Elam, from the Early Bronze Age and later with various other peoples, such as the Kassite’s, Mannaeans, and Gutians. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel names the Persians as the first Historical People.
Before a different group of people lived in Iran. These people were called the Elamites (a native or inhabitant of ancient Elam). The Elamites lived in a kingdom called Elam. Elam was conquered by Iranian peoples, such as the Medes (a type of Iranian), because the Elamites became weak after fighting the Assyrian people (a different people) for too long. The Iranians would then go on to conquer the Assyrians, as well.
The name Iran comes from Aryan and is also mentioned in the ancient book of the Zoroastrians, which was called the Avesta. Iran means “Aryan” in Persian. In the 19th and early 20th century, the name Aryan was used by Europeans to mean all Indo-Europeans.
Around 500 BC, present-day Iran was the center of the Persian Empire. Then, Alexander the Great took the country by fighting and the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia later ruled. After them the Sassanian dynasty (224-651) took over.
Other Nations attack Iran and took Persia by fighting, like the Arabs (7th century), Turks (10th century) and Mongols (13th century). However, Iran has always maintained a distinct culture and continued to survive.
The Safavi dynasty (1502-1736) made Islam and Shi’a the religion of Iran although Islam was always popular then. The latest kings of Iran were from the Pahlavi dynasty, and ruled from 1925 until 1979, when there was a revolution and Ayatollah Khomeini created an Islamic republic.

Achaemenid Empire

With the formation of the Iranian Empire, not only old civilizations were regained, but subordinate to Iran’s gens also found themselves in a new world that was more extensive and safer than ever before.The Achaemenid Empire (c. 550–330 BC), also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was one of the largest empires in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers, and was larger than any previous empire in history. It is equally notable for its successful model of a centralized, bureaucratic administration (through satraps under the King of Kings), for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire’s successes inspired similar systems in later empires.

Safavids Empire

Safavids ruled Iran for about 221 years, which is considered to be the most important historical period in Iran during the Safavid period has made remarkable progress in several areas, including:
Military, Shiite jurisprudence and art (architecture, calligraphy and painting), with many works of art remaining in this period.
During the reign of Shah Abbas I, was the culmination of the boom in trade and commerce in Iran.
Shah Abbas I’s policies in the field of religious affairs have caused the influx of European merchants to trade, and trade, to Iran. Commercial contracts were signed at the time of Shah Abbas I, with Europeans.
The business boom required the security of the roads and their development, which contributed to the prosperity of the country.Thus, the business at Shah Abbas became vast and diverse. Which contributed to the rise of power and government.

Sassanid Empire

Sassanid Empire, the last Iranian monarchy before the Arab invasion of Iran and Islamization of Iranians. In the Sassanid period, Iranian civilization, in many respects, finally flourished. During the Sassanid era, Iran had a great influence on Roman culture. The influence of the Sasanians was not limited to the borders of Iran, but their impact on India, China, Western Europe and Africa. The Sasanians played a prominent role in the formation of European and Asian art in the Middle Ages. The major part of what is now known as Islamic civilization in art, architecture, music and other fields was transferred from the Sasanians to the Islamic world.